The dyeing materials can be extracted from woods and roots.

• Campechianum Haematoxylon
Dyeing principles: Hematein

The general name “Haematoxylon” means “bloody wood” and refers to the dark red colour of the tree heart. The word “Campechianum”
refers to Campeche City in Yucatan. This wood was imported from this peninsula to Europe.

• Brasil wood Aesalpina Echinata
Dyeing principles: Brasileina

Seeds and Leafs
The plants are leguminous.

At the end of XV century clothes were black, yellow, brown and grey.
Also the colours red and violet existed but their production was extremely limited to the nobility and to the clerical dignitaries.
With the discovery of America the dyeing woods import began, so that it was possible to produce big quantities of red and violet dyes.
Particularly red was extracted from “Cesalpina wood” and remind the colour of burning coals. (Braise in old English and French) and
the place, where a lot of these trees grew, was called from the Portuguese seamen “The land of Brasil” and later Brasil. The economic
importance of these dyeing woods was so high that the boats which transport them , were often robbed by the pirates and buccaneers.
A single 50 tons Campeche wood loaded boat had worth like all the goods they were transported during a year. Later the production
was moved to tropical Asia and South Pacific.

Extraction hematein and brasilein can be extracted from wood shavings by cooking them in hot water or under steam. During extracting
you have a partial oxidation which can complete later when the product is applied as dye.

• Acacia Catechu (Acacia catechu Wild)
Dyeing principles: Catechu

Not very high trees (9-12 meters) . They grow in India and Sry Lanca. It’s a multifunctional tree and contains a lot of tannin which is
used for dyeing, tanning and together with the Betel leaf against inflammation of the ear.

The crumbled wood is macerated in boiling water vats and the dry extract is reduced in buns and sold. This extract contains a lot of
rubbers and catechu. This procedure has three stages: row extract production (black catechu), separation of the dyeing fluid and
solidification of the rest .

Row catechu in the market
The catechu locust heart is cut and crumbled so to extract the colour

• Quebracho (Aspidosperma Quebracho-blanco)
Dyeing principles: Tannin

The evergreen quebracho tree can be higher than 30 meters and grows in South America. The name of this tree comes from a colloquial
spanish word “quiebra-hacha” (break-axe) , referred to the extreme wood hardness. It was not known in Europe till 1878, although the
extracted substances were used against fever in America.

The crambled product contains till 25% tannin and is extracted under pressure and in boiling water in a surge tank.
The resulting solution will be gradually concentrated and the obtained solid substance go under other procedures before being in trade.

• Robbia (Rubia Tinctorum)
Dyeing principles: Alizarin

In the past the “Rubia Tinctorum” was the main dyeing substance for cotton, and grew extensively in Europe (France and Holland) and
in the middle East. Today this is the colour of the French military clothes. The root contains a lot of dyeing pigments: together with
alizarin, which makes the red colour , also the pseudo-purple (orange) and xonto purple (yellow).

Dying substances extracted from Fruits, flowers and leaves

• Mulberry tree (clorophora Tinctoria , Maclura Tinctoria, Maclura Pomifera)
Dyeing principles: Morin

Maclura Pomifera
It is a mulberry tree as the white and the black mulberry tree you can find in our countries. The dyeing principle is contained in the
wood, berries and roots.

This kind of wood was known as “Bois d’ Orange” and used in the French dyeing industry already in XIII century, till the synthetic dyeing
comes out. You can find receipts of this kind of dye in a book written in 1540 by a Venetian,Giovanni Ventur Rossetti. His dyeing
methods were used over 200 years.

First the raw materials are crumbled, then ground to powder and last let macerating in water.

• Hypericum (Hypericum Perforatum)
Dyeing principles: Rutin

The tree name in Greek means to dispel evils and for this purpose the tree scent was used. It was used also to care the crusaders wounds.
It is an European everlasting tree which grows in North America. Flowers and stames are used to obtain the dyeing principle.

• Pomegranate-tree (Punica Granatum)
Dyeing principles: Pellettierina

This tree grows in Iran or Himalaya, it grows also in the Mediterranean lands. It is used also for medicinal purposes. The dyeing principle
is obtained from the fruit peels.

• Aloe (Aloe Barbadiensis)
Dyeing principles: Aloin and hemodin

Aloe is a plant used during a long time for its medicinal properties. It belongs to the lily family. First it was growing in Africa, but today
it is catching on all around the world. The tree name comes from Arabian “alloeh” and means the bitter and sticky liquid which comes
out cutting the leaves. At this way you can obtain the dyeing extract.